The Constitutionist

Website design and construction by C. Stanton - Research & Design - 2012

A man who deliberately inflicts violence on the language
will almost certainly inflict violence on human beings if he
acquires the power. Those who treasure the meaning of
words will treasure truth, and those who bend words to
their purposes are very likely in pursuit of anti-social ones.
The correct and honorable use of words is the first and
natural credential of civilized status.

Paul Johnson — Enemies of Society

Editor's Comments

(Plus a Reviewer's Guide)

        To those that are reading this book, I congratulate you. For anyone who is a history buff, you are about to be richly rewarded. Those of you who are not students of history will, nonetheless, find the material herein a bit less entertaining but, once warmed to the subject, no less rewarding.

       You are about to enter a time machine which will transport you to a momentous era of Colonial America. The vistas which will greet you are not those of Francis Guy or whatever quaint rural landscapes of the latter day Hudson School but sometimes astonishing portraits of the individuals who initiated this great experiment in American freedom.

       Windows will be opened into those smoke-filled rooms of the Continental Congress and Constitutional Convention. What little records of their furtive and secretive goings-on will be brought before you in such a way as to make you a virtual part of those pivotal events. At times, you will feel as though you are staring over the shoulder of these Founding Fathers as they debated and, just as often, quarreled over minutiae and cornerstones alike.

       You will be given profiles detailing two-thirds of all thirty-nine signers of the Constitution. These brief biographies will bring to life those who were most keenly involved with shaping what would become our nation’s next two centuries of legal history. Speaking as someone with deep genealogical roots and a love of America’s Constitution, this sort of historic political perspective is priceless.  (Read More)

Additional Material

      The following reviewer’s guide is intended to direct the reader towards critical entries, chapters and terminology that will be encountered throughout this book. Its glossary contains axioms, definitions, birthrights and goals which are used to explain and formulate the reasoning behind this text. In addition, a link at this page's end connects to some selected passages which are intended to stimulate the reader’s interest such that this entire work is examined. The editor’s comments are included above (and linked to at the In Depth tab), as an explanation regarding the detailed nature and length of this book.

Reviewer’s Guide 

Abbreviations & Symbols

# - Number

D - Dictionary

LON - Law of Nations


Axiom 1. Because authors do not define the definitions of new terms they use does not mean that they do not know what they mean in their own minds.

Axiom 2. Because authors use terms in a different way than defined in dictionaries does not mean that such terms used in the authors’ books have the dictionary meaning.

Axiom 3. Political secrecy causes blurred gaps in the histories of all countries.

Axiom 4. Conspiracy distorts written history.

Axiom 5. Lawyers parse words.

Axiom 6. Political analysts must apply the same logic to both sides of any political dispute in order to be fair and consistent.

Axiom 7. Those that accept substantiated correlations to prove conclusions that suit them must accept substantiated correlations to prove conclusions that don’t suit them if they are to retain their integrity and fulfill Axiom 6.

Axiom 8. Different languages often have words translatable to each others language from the same roots but with substantially different meanings, such that in many cases there is no such thing as a perfect translation.

Axiom 9. Different cultures can have the same dictionary meanings of words but different connotations based on cultural teaching and tradition.

Axiom 10. Translators can make poor translations by error or manipulate translations according to an agenda, either of which can change history.

Axiom 11. Perfect translations are rare.

Axiom 12. The structure of a language at times makes it impossible to translate perfectly.

Birther Definitions 

Birtherbc - First defined as a person who thought Obama’s short-form birth certificate was phony and is now defined as a person that continues to believe that Obama’s short form is phony and additionally believes that his long-form birth certificate is also phony.

Birther1 - A person who believes that a presidential candidate in America must be born of two American citizens on the soil of any of the fifty states, starting, in Obama’s case, when Hawaii gained statehood.

Birther2 - A person who believes that a presidential candidate must be born of at least one American citizen on the soil of any of the fifty states, starting when Hawaii gained statehood.

Birther3 - A person who believes that a presidential candidate must be born on the soil of any of the fifty states, regardless of the citizenship status of his parents. Both can be foreign nationals and both can be illegal aliens or a mixture thereof. In general, this is the designation of a person who believes native-born equates to natural-born and who believes fulfilling the conditions of the 14th Amendment qualifies a person’s candidacy for the presidency.

Birther4 - A person who believes that a presidential candidate can be born of two American citizens in any U.S territory subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

Birther5 - A person who believes that a presidential candidate can be born of one American citizen in any U.S. territory subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

Birther6 - A person who believes that a presidential candidate can be a person born of one American citizen in any country in the world.

Birther7 - A person that believes naturalized citizens are equivalent to native-born citizens who are equivalent to natural-born citizens in terms of all rights, including the right to run for the presidency.

Anti-birther (or antibirther) - A person who opposes birther arguments; a person who believes in the legitimacy of the long and short forms of President Obama’s birth certificates; or a person who believes that President Obama constitutionally fulfills the natural born citizen requirement in the presidential eligibility clause of the U.S. Constitution.


Jus solis - jus means law or right and solis means soil; hence, the law or right of the soil. Jus solis determines birthright in terms of a political association with a government based on the place where a person was born.

Jus sanguinis - jus means law or right and sanguinis means blood; hence the law or right of blood. Jus sanguinis determines birthright in terms of a political association with a government based on the blood association of the parent, usually following the blood of the father.

Native born - the same as native-born without the hyphen. Native born will be used in this text when it refers to the time when the unhyphenated descriptor was current, generally speaking before the 1790s.

Natural born - the same as natural-born without the hyphen. The 1797 edition of Emer de Vattel’s The Law of Nations introduced the hyphenated form. The unhyphenated form will be used in the text when it refers to the time when the unhyphenated form was used and always when referring to the terms natural born free Citizen.

Final Presidential Eligibility Clause in Use Today in the Constitution  

“No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen years a Resident within the United States.”

Five Goals to Reach Regarding the Framers 

Chapter 13: I will cover the lives of a number of signers but not all. The realities I wish to make clear for the reader are:

(1) The signers were for the most part men that loved books and libraries.

(2) The reason that much of the twenty-first century public is not amply aware of this can be attributed to ignorance and the fact that many of the libraries were plundered and consumed by fire, eliminating evidence of them.

(3) Almost all the signers had learned Latin and French when they were young, and some had learned Greek.

(4) They were better educated and had more real-life contact with governmental authoritarianism than our leaders of today.

(5) They truly believed in freedom, which means exactly what it impliesmost of our present-day politicians pay nothing more than lip service to freedom. They do not understand its true meaning and they most certainly do not want it to interfere with their progressive usurpation of power.

The Main Points 

1. The American legal system is not patterned after the British legal system.

2. The American legal system derived more from the law of nature, the law of nations, and from its own uniqueness than anything it borrowed from Britain’s legal system.

3. There is no point in looking for the meaning of the American term “natural-born citizen” in the British term “natural-born subject,” created by Sir Edward Coke. John Jay created “natural born Citizen,” to which he applied Emer de Vattel’s definition for “indigenes” in The Law of Nations, Volume I, Book I, Chapter XIX, § 212.

4. Beginning with the origins of American law stemming from Rome and Athens and the subsequent evolution of the law of nations, only one public jurist, Emer de Vattel, created a definition for a higher form of citizenshipa citizen born on the soil of the country of two citizen parents of the countryhis definition for natives and indigenes.

5. John Jay used Vattel’s definition for his “natural born Citizen” letter to Washington on July 25, 1787 concerning the presidential eligibility clause in the Constitution.

6. Till that date, only one verifiable usage of natural born Citizen can be traced to the time it was used in the combination of “natural born free Citizens” in a 1777 resolution in the Journals of the Continental Congress.

7. John Jay met face to face several times with Sir William Scott, the King’s Advocate of the High Court of Admiralty in Britain, while Jay negotiated the Jay Treaty in 1794 with Lord Grenville.

8. Since the meanings of origin, nationality, subjectship and citizenship were tantamount to arriving at an agreement to stop British impressments and prizes to prevent a war between Britain and the United States, John Jay, the creator of the Constitution’s “natural born Citizen,” answered Sir William Scott’s inquiry as to the exact meaning of the term.

9. With the permission of John Jay, providing the source was kept secret, Sir William Scott, as the editor and translator for the 1797 English edition of The Laws of Nations, replaced the term “indigenes” in Emer de Vattel’s §212 with “natural-born citizens.”

Chapters Edited by C. Stanton

Chapters 1 through 8, Chapter 11, Chapter 13, Chapter 14, Chapter 15, Chapter 19 and Chapter 22.

Key Excerpts from Chapters of the eBook 
(Read More)

Website design and construction by C. Stanton - Research & Design - 2012